This document describes the current stable version of Celery (4.4). For development docs, go here.

Source code for celery.result

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Task results/state and results for groups of tasks."""
from __future__ import absolute_import, unicode_literals

import datetime
import time
from collections import OrderedDict, deque
from contextlib import contextmanager
from copy import copy

from kombu.utils.objects import cached_property
from vine import Thenable, barrier, promise

from . import current_app, states
from ._state import _set_task_join_will_block, task_join_will_block
from .app import app_or_default
from .exceptions import ImproperlyConfigured, IncompleteStream, TimeoutError
from .five import (items, monotonic, python_2_unicode_compatible, range,
                   string_t)
from .utils import deprecated
from .utils.graph import DependencyGraph, GraphFormatter
from .utils.iso8601 import parse_iso8601

try:
    import tblib
except ImportError:
    tblib = None

__all__ = (
    'ResultBase', 'AsyncResult', 'ResultSet',
    'GroupResult', 'EagerResult', 'result_from_tuple',
)

E_WOULDBLOCK = """\
Never call result.get() within a task!
See http://docs.celeryq.org/en/latest/userguide/tasks.html\
#task-synchronous-subtasks
"""


def assert_will_not_block():
    if task_join_will_block():
        raise RuntimeError(E_WOULDBLOCK)


@contextmanager
def allow_join_result():
    reset_value = task_join_will_block()
    _set_task_join_will_block(False)
    try:
        yield
    finally:
        _set_task_join_will_block(reset_value)


@contextmanager
def denied_join_result():
    reset_value = task_join_will_block()
    _set_task_join_will_block(True)
    try:
        yield
    finally:
        _set_task_join_will_block(reset_value)


[docs]class ResultBase(object): """Base class for results.""" #: Parent result (if part of a chain) parent = None
[docs]@Thenable.register @python_2_unicode_compatible class AsyncResult(ResultBase): """Query task state. Arguments: id (str): See :attr:`id`. backend (Backend): See :attr:`backend`. """ app = None #: Error raised for timeouts. TimeoutError = TimeoutError #: The task's UUID. id = None #: The task result backend to use. backend = None def __init__(self, id, backend=None, task_name=None, # deprecated app=None, parent=None): if id is None: raise ValueError( 'AsyncResult requires valid id, not {0}'.format(type(id))) self.app = app_or_default(app or self.app) self.id = id self.backend = backend or self.app.backend self.parent = parent self.on_ready = promise(self._on_fulfilled, weak=True) self._cache = None self._ignored = False @property def ignored(self): """If True, task result retrieval is disabled.""" if hasattr(self, '_ignored'): return self._ignored return False @ignored.setter def ignored(self, value): """Enable/disable task result retrieval.""" self._ignored = value
[docs] def then(self, callback, on_error=None, weak=False): self.backend.add_pending_result(self, weak=weak) return self.on_ready.then(callback, on_error)
def _on_fulfilled(self, result): self.backend.remove_pending_result(self) return result
[docs] def as_tuple(self): parent = self.parent return (self.id, parent and parent.as_tuple()), None
[docs] def as_list(self): """ Returns as a list of task IDs. """ results = [] parent = self.parent results.append(self.id) if parent is not None: results.extend(parent.as_list()) return results
[docs] def forget(self): """Forget the result of this task and its parents.""" self._cache = None if self.parent: self.parent.forget() self.backend.forget(self.id)
[docs] def revoke(self, connection=None, terminate=False, signal=None, wait=False, timeout=None): """Send revoke signal to all workers. Any worker receiving the task, or having reserved the task, *must* ignore it. Arguments: terminate (bool): Also terminate the process currently working on the task (if any). signal (str): Name of signal to send to process if terminate. Default is TERM. wait (bool): Wait for replies from workers. The ``timeout`` argument specifies the seconds to wait. Disabled by default. timeout (float): Time in seconds to wait for replies when ``wait`` is enabled. """ self.app.control.revoke(self.id, connection=connection, terminate=terminate, signal=signal, reply=wait, timeout=timeout)
[docs] def get(self, timeout=None, propagate=True, interval=0.5, no_ack=True, follow_parents=True, callback=None, on_message=None, on_interval=None, disable_sync_subtasks=True, EXCEPTION_STATES=states.EXCEPTION_STATES, PROPAGATE_STATES=states.PROPAGATE_STATES): """Wait until task is ready, and return its result. Warning: Waiting for tasks within a task may lead to deadlocks. Please read :ref:`task-synchronous-subtasks`. Warning: Backends use resources to store and transmit results. To ensure that resources are released, you must eventually call :meth:`~@AsyncResult.get` or :meth:`~@AsyncResult.forget` on EVERY :class:`~@AsyncResult` instance returned after calling a task. Arguments: timeout (float): How long to wait, in seconds, before the operation times out. propagate (bool): Re-raise exception if the task failed. interval (float): Time to wait (in seconds) before retrying to retrieve the result. Note that this does not have any effect when using the RPC/redis result store backends, as they don't use polling. no_ack (bool): Enable amqp no ack (automatically acknowledge message). If this is :const:`False` then the message will **not be acked**. follow_parents (bool): Re-raise any exception raised by parent tasks. disable_sync_subtasks (bool): Disable tasks to wait for sub tasks this is the default configuration. CAUTION do not enable this unless you must. Raises: celery.exceptions.TimeoutError: if `timeout` isn't :const:`None` and the result does not arrive within `timeout` seconds. Exception: If the remote call raised an exception then that exception will be re-raised in the caller process. """ if self.ignored: return if disable_sync_subtasks: assert_will_not_block() _on_interval = promise() if follow_parents and propagate and self.parent: _on_interval = promise(self._maybe_reraise_parent_error, weak=True) self._maybe_reraise_parent_error() if on_interval: _on_interval.then(on_interval) if self._cache: if propagate: self.maybe_throw(callback=callback) return self.result self.backend.add_pending_result(self) return self.backend.wait_for_pending( self, timeout=timeout, interval=interval, on_interval=_on_interval, no_ack=no_ack, propagate=propagate, callback=callback, on_message=on_message, )
wait = get # deprecated alias to :meth:`get`. def _maybe_reraise_parent_error(self): for node in reversed(list(self._parents())): node.maybe_throw() def _parents(self): node = self.parent while node: yield node node = node.parent
[docs] def collect(self, intermediate=False, **kwargs): """Collect results as they return. Iterator, like :meth:`get` will wait for the task to complete, but will also follow :class:`AsyncResult` and :class:`ResultSet` returned by the task, yielding ``(result, value)`` tuples for each result in the tree. An example would be having the following tasks: .. code-block:: python from celery import group from proj.celery import app @app.task(trail=True) def A(how_many): return group(B.s(i) for i in range(how_many))() @app.task(trail=True) def B(i): return pow2.delay(i) @app.task(trail=True) def pow2(i): return i ** 2 .. code-block:: pycon >>> from celery.result import ResultBase >>> from proj.tasks import A >>> result = A.delay(10) >>> [v for v in result.collect() ... if not isinstance(v, (ResultBase, tuple))] [0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81] Note: The ``Task.trail`` option must be enabled so that the list of children is stored in ``result.children``. This is the default but enabled explicitly for illustration. Yields: Tuple[AsyncResult, Any]: tuples containing the result instance of the child task, and the return value of that task. """ for _, R in self.iterdeps(intermediate=intermediate): yield R, R.get(**kwargs)
[docs] def get_leaf(self): value = None for _, R in self.iterdeps(): value = R.get() return value
[docs] def iterdeps(self, intermediate=False): stack = deque([(None, self)]) while stack: parent, node = stack.popleft() yield parent, node if node.ready(): stack.extend((node, child) for child in node.children or []) else: if not intermediate: raise IncompleteStream()
[docs] def ready(self): """Return :const:`True` if the task has executed. If the task is still running, pending, or is waiting for retry then :const:`False` is returned. """ return self.state in self.backend.READY_STATES
[docs] def successful(self): """Return :const:`True` if the task executed successfully.""" return self.state == states.SUCCESS
[docs] def failed(self): """Return :const:`True` if the task failed.""" return self.state == states.FAILURE
[docs] def throw(self, *args, **kwargs): self.on_ready.throw(*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def maybe_throw(self, propagate=True, callback=None): cache = self._get_task_meta() if self._cache is None else self._cache state, value, tb = ( cache['status'], cache['result'], cache.get('traceback')) if state in states.PROPAGATE_STATES and propagate: self.throw(value, self._to_remote_traceback(tb)) if callback is not None: callback(self.id, value) return value
maybe_reraise = maybe_throw # XXX compat alias def _to_remote_traceback(self, tb): if tb and tblib is not None and self.app.conf.task_remote_tracebacks: return tblib.Traceback.from_string(tb).as_traceback()
[docs] def build_graph(self, intermediate=False, formatter=None): graph = DependencyGraph( formatter=formatter or GraphFormatter(root=self.id, shape='oval'), ) for parent, node in self.iterdeps(intermediate=intermediate): graph.add_arc(node) if parent: graph.add_edge(parent, node) return graph
def __str__(self): """`str(self) -> self.id`.""" return str(self.id) def __hash__(self): """`hash(self) -> hash(self.id)`.""" return hash(self.id) def __repr__(self): return '<{0}: {1}>'.format(type(self).__name__, self.id) def __eq__(self, other): if isinstance(other, AsyncResult): return other.id == self.id elif isinstance(other, string_t): return other == self.id return NotImplemented def __ne__(self, other): res = self.__eq__(other) return True if res is NotImplemented else not res def __copy__(self): return self.__class__( self.id, self.backend, None, self.app, self.parent, ) def __reduce__(self): return self.__class__, self.__reduce_args__() def __reduce_args__(self): return self.id, self.backend, None, None, self.parent def __del__(self): """Cancel pending operations when the instance is destroyed.""" if self.backend is not None: self.backend.remove_pending_result(self)
[docs] @cached_property def graph(self): return self.build_graph()
@property def supports_native_join(self): return self.backend.supports_native_join @property def children(self): return self._get_task_meta().get('children') def _maybe_set_cache(self, meta): if meta: state = meta['status'] if state in states.READY_STATES: d = self._set_cache(self.backend.meta_from_decoded(meta)) self.on_ready(self) return d return meta def _get_task_meta(self): if self._cache is None: return self._maybe_set_cache(self.backend.get_task_meta(self.id)) return self._cache def _iter_meta(self, **kwargs): return iter([self._get_task_meta()]) def _set_cache(self, d): children = d.get('children') if children: d['children'] = [ result_from_tuple(child, self.app) for child in children ] self._cache = d return d @property def result(self): """Task return value. Note: When the task has been executed, this contains the return value. If the task raised an exception, this will be the exception instance. """ return self._get_task_meta()['result'] info = result @property def traceback(self): """Get the traceback of a failed task.""" return self._get_task_meta().get('traceback') @property def state(self): """The tasks current state. Possible values includes: *PENDING* The task is waiting for execution. *STARTED* The task has been started. *RETRY* The task is to be retried, possibly because of failure. *FAILURE* The task raised an exception, or has exceeded the retry limit. The :attr:`result` attribute then contains the exception raised by the task. *SUCCESS* The task executed successfully. The :attr:`result` attribute then contains the tasks return value. """ return self._get_task_meta()['status'] status = state # XXX compat @property def task_id(self): """Compat. alias to :attr:`id`.""" return self.id @task_id.setter # noqa def task_id(self, id): self.id = id @property def name(self): return self._get_task_meta().get('name') @property def args(self): return self._get_task_meta().get('args') @property def kwargs(self): return self._get_task_meta().get('kwargs') @property def worker(self): return self._get_task_meta().get('worker') @property def date_done(self): """UTC date and time.""" date_done = self._get_task_meta().get('date_done') if date_done and not isinstance(date_done, datetime.datetime): return parse_iso8601(date_done) return date_done @property def retries(self): return self._get_task_meta().get('retries') @property def queue(self): return self._get_task_meta().get('queue')
[docs]@Thenable.register @python_2_unicode_compatible class ResultSet(ResultBase): """A collection of results. Arguments: results (Sequence[AsyncResult]): List of result instances. """ _app = None #: List of results in in the set. results = None def __init__(self, results, app=None, ready_barrier=None, **kwargs): self._app = app self.results = results self.on_ready = promise(args=(self,)) self._on_full = ready_barrier or barrier(results) if self._on_full: self._on_full.then(promise(self._on_ready, weak=True))
[docs] def add(self, result): """Add :class:`AsyncResult` as a new member of the set. Does nothing if the result is already a member. """ if result not in self.results: self.results.append(result) if self._on_full: self._on_full.add(result)
def _on_ready(self): if self.backend.is_async: self.on_ready()
[docs] def remove(self, result): """Remove result from the set; it must be a member. Raises: KeyError: if the result isn't a member. """ if isinstance(result, string_t): result = self.app.AsyncResult(result) try: self.results.remove(result) except ValueError: raise KeyError(result)
[docs] def discard(self, result): """Remove result from the set if it is a member. Does nothing if it's not a member. """ try: self.remove(result) except KeyError: pass
[docs] def update(self, results): """Extend from iterable of results.""" self.results.extend(r for r in results if r not in self.results)
[docs] def clear(self): """Remove all results from this set.""" self.results[:] = [] # don't create new list.
[docs] def successful(self): """Return true if all tasks successful. Returns: bool: true if all of the tasks finished successfully (i.e. didn't raise an exception). """ return all(result.successful() for result in self.results)
[docs] def failed(self): """Return true if any of the tasks failed. Returns: bool: true if one of the tasks failed. (i.e., raised an exception) """ return any(result.failed() for result in self.results)
[docs] def maybe_throw(self, callback=None, propagate=True): for result in self.results: result.maybe_throw(callback=callback, propagate=propagate)
maybe_reraise = maybe_throw # XXX compat alias.
[docs] def waiting(self): """Return true if any of the tasks are incomplete. Returns: bool: true if one of the tasks are still waiting for execution. """ return any(not result.ready() for result in self.results)
[docs] def ready(self): """Did all of the tasks complete? (either by success of failure). Returns: bool: true if all of the tasks have been executed. """ return all(result.ready() for result in self.results)
[docs] def completed_count(self): """Task completion count. Returns: int: the number of tasks completed. """ return sum(int(result.successful()) for result in self.results)
[docs] def forget(self): """Forget about (and possible remove the result of) all the tasks.""" for result in self.results: result.forget()
[docs] def revoke(self, connection=None, terminate=False, signal=None, wait=False, timeout=None): """Send revoke signal to all workers for all tasks in the set. Arguments: terminate (bool): Also terminate the process currently working on the task (if any). signal (str): Name of signal to send to process if terminate. Default is TERM. wait (bool): Wait for replies from worker. The ``timeout`` argument specifies the number of seconds to wait. Disabled by default. timeout (float): Time in seconds to wait for replies when the ``wait`` argument is enabled. """ self.app.control.revoke([r.id for r in self.results], connection=connection, timeout=timeout, terminate=terminate, signal=signal, reply=wait)
def __iter__(self): return iter(self.results) def __getitem__(self, index): """`res[i] -> res.results[i]`.""" return self.results[index]
[docs] @deprecated.Callable('4.0', '5.0') def iterate(self, timeout=None, propagate=True, interval=0.5): """Deprecated method, use :meth:`get` with a callback argument.""" elapsed = 0.0 results = OrderedDict((result.id, copy(result)) for result in self.results) while results: removed = set() for task_id, result in items(results): if result.ready(): yield result.get(timeout=timeout and timeout - elapsed, propagate=propagate) removed.add(task_id) else: if result.backend.subpolling_interval: time.sleep(result.backend.subpolling_interval) for task_id in removed: results.pop(task_id, None) time.sleep(interval) elapsed += interval if timeout and elapsed >= timeout: raise TimeoutError('The operation timed out')
[docs] def get(self, timeout=None, propagate=True, interval=0.5, callback=None, no_ack=True, on_message=None, disable_sync_subtasks=True, on_interval=None): """See :meth:`join`. This is here for API compatibility with :class:`AsyncResult`, in addition it uses :meth:`join_native` if available for the current result backend. """ return (self.join_native if self.supports_native_join else self.join)( timeout=timeout, propagate=propagate, interval=interval, callback=callback, no_ack=no_ack, on_message=on_message, disable_sync_subtasks=disable_sync_subtasks, on_interval=on_interval, )
[docs] def join(self, timeout=None, propagate=True, interval=0.5, callback=None, no_ack=True, on_message=None, disable_sync_subtasks=True, on_interval=None): """Gather the results of all tasks as a list in order. Note: This can be an expensive operation for result store backends that must resort to polling (e.g., database). You should consider using :meth:`join_native` if your backend supports it. Warning: Waiting for tasks within a task may lead to deadlocks. Please see :ref:`task-synchronous-subtasks`. Arguments: timeout (float): The number of seconds to wait for results before the operation times out. propagate (bool): If any of the tasks raises an exception, the exception will be re-raised when this flag is set. interval (float): Time to wait (in seconds) before retrying to retrieve a result from the set. Note that this does not have any effect when using the amqp result store backend, as it does not use polling. callback (Callable): Optional callback to be called for every result received. Must have signature ``(task_id, value)`` No results will be returned by this function if a callback is specified. The order of results is also arbitrary when a callback is used. To get access to the result object for a particular id you'll have to generate an index first: ``index = {r.id: r for r in gres.results.values()}`` Or you can create new result objects on the fly: ``result = app.AsyncResult(task_id)`` (both will take advantage of the backend cache anyway). no_ack (bool): Automatic message acknowledgment (Note that if this is set to :const:`False` then the messages *will not be acknowledged*). disable_sync_subtasks (bool): Disable tasks to wait for sub tasks this is the default configuration. CAUTION do not enable this unless you must. Raises: celery.exceptions.TimeoutError: if ``timeout`` isn't :const:`None` and the operation takes longer than ``timeout`` seconds. """ if disable_sync_subtasks: assert_will_not_block() time_start = monotonic() remaining = None if on_message is not None: raise ImproperlyConfigured( 'Backend does not support on_message callback') results = [] for result in self.results: remaining = None if timeout: remaining = timeout - (monotonic() - time_start) if remaining <= 0.0: raise TimeoutError('join operation timed out') value = result.get( timeout=remaining, propagate=propagate, interval=interval, no_ack=no_ack, on_interval=on_interval, disable_sync_subtasks=disable_sync_subtasks, ) if callback: callback(result.id, value) else: results.append(value) return results
[docs] def then(self, callback, on_error=None, weak=False): return self.on_ready.then(callback, on_error)
[docs] def iter_native(self, timeout=None, interval=0.5, no_ack=True, on_message=None, on_interval=None): """Backend optimized version of :meth:`iterate`. .. versionadded:: 2.2 Note that this does not support collecting the results for different task types using different backends. This is currently only supported by the amqp, Redis and cache result backends. """ return self.backend.iter_native( self, timeout=timeout, interval=interval, no_ack=no_ack, on_message=on_message, on_interval=on_interval, )
[docs] def join_native(self, timeout=None, propagate=True, interval=0.5, callback=None, no_ack=True, on_message=None, on_interval=None, disable_sync_subtasks=True): """Backend optimized version of :meth:`join`. .. versionadded:: 2.2 Note that this does not support collecting the results for different task types using different backends. This is currently only supported by the amqp, Redis and cache result backends. """ if disable_sync_subtasks: assert_will_not_block() order_index = None if callback else { result.id: i for i, result in enumerate(self.results) } acc = None if callback else [None for _ in range(len(self))] for task_id, meta in self.iter_native(timeout, interval, no_ack, on_message, on_interval): if isinstance(meta, list): value = [] for children_result in meta: value.append(children_result.get()) else: value = meta['result'] if propagate and meta['status'] in states.PROPAGATE_STATES: raise value if callback: callback(task_id, value) else: acc[order_index[task_id]] = value return acc
def _iter_meta(self, **kwargs): return (meta for _, meta in self.backend.get_many( {r.id for r in self.results}, max_iterations=1, **kwargs )) def _failed_join_report(self): return (res for res in self.results if res.backend.is_cached(res.id) and res.state in states.PROPAGATE_STATES) def __len__(self): return len(self.results) def __eq__(self, other): if isinstance(other, ResultSet): return other.results == self.results return NotImplemented def __ne__(self, other): res = self.__eq__(other) return True if res is NotImplemented else not res def __repr__(self): return '<{0}: [{1}]>'.format(type(self).__name__, ', '.join(r.id for r in self.results)) @property def supports_native_join(self): try: return self.results[0].supports_native_join except IndexError: pass @property def app(self): if self._app is None: self._app = (self.results[0].app if self.results else current_app._get_current_object()) return self._app @app.setter def app(self, app): # noqa self._app = app @property def backend(self): return self.app.backend if self.app else self.results[0].backend
[docs]@Thenable.register @python_2_unicode_compatible class GroupResult(ResultSet): """Like :class:`ResultSet`, but with an associated id. This type is returned by :class:`~celery.group`. It enables inspection of the tasks state and return values as a single entity. Arguments: id (str): The id of the group. results (Sequence[AsyncResult]): List of result instances. parent (ResultBase): Parent result of this group. """ #: The UUID of the group. id = None #: List/iterator of results in the group results = None def __init__(self, id=None, results=None, parent=None, **kwargs): self.id = id self.parent = parent ResultSet.__init__(self, results, **kwargs) def _on_ready(self): self.backend.remove_pending_result(self) ResultSet._on_ready(self)
[docs] def save(self, backend=None): """Save group-result for later retrieval using :meth:`restore`. Example: >>> def save_and_restore(result): ... result.save() ... result = GroupResult.restore(result.id) """ return (backend or self.app.backend).save_group(self.id, self)
[docs] def delete(self, backend=None): """Remove this result if it was previously saved.""" (backend or self.app.backend).delete_group(self.id)
def __reduce__(self): return self.__class__, self.__reduce_args__() def __reduce_args__(self): return self.id, self.results def __bool__(self): return bool(self.id or self.results) __nonzero__ = __bool__ # Included for Py2 backwards compatibility def __eq__(self, other): if isinstance(other, GroupResult): return ( other.id == self.id and other.results == self.results and other.parent == self.parent ) elif isinstance(other, string_t): return other == self.id return NotImplemented def __ne__(self, other): res = self.__eq__(other) return True if res is NotImplemented else not res def __repr__(self): return '<{0}: {1} [{2}]>'.format( type(self).__name__, self.id, ', '.join(r.id for r in self.results) ) def __str__(self): """`str(self) -> self.id`.""" return str(self.id) def __hash__(self): """`hash(self) -> hash(self.id)`.""" return hash(self.id)
[docs] def as_tuple(self): return ( (self.id, self.parent and self.parent.as_tuple()), [r.as_tuple() for r in self.results] )
@property def children(self): return self.results
[docs] @classmethod def restore(cls, id, backend=None, app=None): """Restore previously saved group result.""" app = app or ( cls.app if not isinstance(cls.app, property) else current_app ) backend = backend or app.backend return backend.restore_group(id)
[docs]@Thenable.register @python_2_unicode_compatible class EagerResult(AsyncResult): """Result that we know has already been executed.""" def __init__(self, id, ret_value, state, traceback=None): # pylint: disable=super-init-not-called # XXX should really not be inheriting from AsyncResult self.id = id self._result = ret_value self._state = state self._traceback = traceback self.on_ready = promise() self.on_ready(self)
[docs] def then(self, callback, on_error=None, weak=False): return self.on_ready.then(callback, on_error)
def _get_task_meta(self): return self._cache def __reduce__(self): return self.__class__, self.__reduce_args__() def __reduce_args__(self): return (self.id, self._result, self._state, self._traceback) def __copy__(self): cls, args = self.__reduce__() return cls(*args)
[docs] def ready(self): return True
[docs] def get(self, timeout=None, propagate=True, disable_sync_subtasks=True, **kwargs): if disable_sync_subtasks: assert_will_not_block() if self.successful(): return self.result elif self.state in states.PROPAGATE_STATES: if propagate: raise self.result if isinstance( self.result, Exception) else Exception(self.result) return self.result
wait = get # XXX Compat (remove 5.0)
[docs] def forget(self): pass
[docs] def revoke(self, *args, **kwargs): self._state = states.REVOKED
def __repr__(self): return '<EagerResult: {0.id}>'.format(self) @property def _cache(self): return { 'task_id': self.id, 'result': self._result, 'status': self._state, 'traceback': self._traceback, } @property def result(self): """The tasks return value.""" return self._result @property def state(self): """The tasks state.""" return self._state status = state @property def traceback(self): """The traceback if the task failed.""" return self._traceback @property def supports_native_join(self): return False
[docs]def result_from_tuple(r, app=None): """Deserialize result from tuple.""" # earlier backends may just pickle, so check if # result is already prepared. app = app_or_default(app) Result = app.AsyncResult if not isinstance(r, ResultBase): res, nodes = r id, parent = res if isinstance(res, (list, tuple)) else (res, None) if parent: parent = result_from_tuple(parent, app) if nodes is not None: return app.GroupResult( id, [result_from_tuple(child, app) for child in nodes], parent=parent, ) return Result(id, parent=parent) return r